Lighting Phrase Definitions:

Ambient Light:

Reserved for ambient light

Source: Link

Barn Doors:

Barn doors are an accessory that can be fitted to a certain type of stage light. Barn doors have 4 ‘door’ like panels, 2 large doors on the left and right side and 2 smaller doors on the top and bottom sides. The barn doors control the output of light from the stage light. The benefit of using these barn doors is that it stops light from being shone somewhere where it’s not needed, such as the audiences eyes and so on.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barn_doors#Barn_doors

Flood:

Reserved for flood

Source: Link

White Balance:

White balance is the global change in the intensity of the colour in images and videos. These colours that you change are the primary colours red, green and blue. The whole idea of doing this is to render neutral colours properly, therefore, making the image much more presentable.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_balance

Gel:

Gel is another stage lighting accessory that can be fitted to a stage light fixture. The gel extender (full name) is similar in appearance to another accessory called the top hat. The gel extender has a holder fitted to it so colour gels can be put into it. Once a colour gel has been fitted and the light is switched on, the light passed through the colour gel and portrays the colour onto the stage.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stage_lighting_accessories

Hard Light vs. Soft Light:

Hard light, when lighting up an object gives a special kinda of shadow. This shadow will have hard edges and even when shining the hard light onto an object with a texture, the texture will come out in the shadow. Soft light pretty much does the opposite and displays the shadow of an object with softer edges. The difference between the two is obviously the type of shadow the light will produce. Not only that but the type of light fixture used determines whether you get soft edges or hard edges on the shadow. After researching this I can see that hard light is good for capturing sharp pictures with a lot of quality. This is because the hard light can produce shape edges and even being out the texture of an object. Soft light would be used under different circumstances such as a model photo shoot possibly.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_light

Light Meter:

A light meter measures the amount of light. It is quite often used in photography to determine the correct amount of exposure during a photo shoot. Light meters are also used in cinematography where the light level needs to be measured before shooting a scene.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_meter

Red Head:

Reserved for red head

Source: Link

Tungsten:

Reserved for tungsten

Source: Link

Tally Light:

A tally light is widely used in television studios. The tally light (also known as the ‘on air’ indicator) is used to tell people (cast members) who are facing the camera, that, that is the camera being used to broadcast at that time. The tally light will change a number of times throughout the filming of a TV show. When the light changes to another camera, the actors will have to continue acting while adapting them self to the recent camera change. Actors will normally have to face the direction of the tally light as it moves from camera to camera.

Source: OWn Knowledge
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tally_light

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